The Eyre Yorke Block bioregion extends throughout the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas in the mid-southern part of South Australia. This bioregion is made up of hilly plains, rocky outcrops and sands. There are also scattered salt lakes which sometimes dry out completely.
The Flinders Lofty Block bioregion is located in southeast South Australia and extends from the suburbs of Adelaide north to the Flinders and Olary Ranges. It has landscapes of mountain ranges, ridges and wide, flat plains. Native grasslands occur on the more fertile soils in the bioregion; clay, clay loam and sandy loam soils found on the plains and gentle slopes of low hills above 380 m altitude.
Old mine area. Many relics, buildings and mine diggings but most of area retains significant remnant vegetation despite numerous disturbances over the years including grazing.
Stony hill top with a good range of grassland species
The terrain of the park is hilly with ephemeral watercourses and rock outcropping on the ridges. Native vegetation in the park comprises tussock grassland dominated by Hard Mat-rush (Lomandra multiflora ssp dura) over Bunch Wire-grass (Aristida behriana). Various spear (Stipa spp) and wallaby (Danthonia spp) grasses are co-dominant throughout. Due to the high proportion of herbaceous species, the appearance of the grassland changes markedly with the seasons. Vegetation on the northern and western slopes is very patchy. In places the structure is relatively open, with gaps between perennial grass and Lomandra tussocks occupied by a variety of seasonal herbs and soil that is bare or covered with a moss and lichen crust. Elsewhere the vegetation may be much denser, with alien species such as Wild Oats (Avena barbata) occupying the space between native grass tussocks and fewer native herbs. The condition of the vegetation is very variable due to past use for grazing with alien species becoming dominant near dams and on hill tops.
Poonthie Ruwe Conservation Park has relatively flat terrain, with very shallow loam over calcrete rock, which outcrops frequently throughout the park. The soluble nature of calcrete has lead to the formation of small ‘potholes’ throughout the park. These ‘potholes’ provide habitat for native fauna, particularly reptiles, although rabbits have been known to use these burrows in the past as well. Sandy soil has blown onto the southern edge of the property from a small, disturbed dune on the adjacent block. The name ‘Poonthie Ruwe’ means ‘Hopping Mouse Country’ in the local Ngarrindjeri language.
The Kanmantoo bioregion is in eastern South Australia. It comprises the backbone of the southern and central Mount Lofty Ranges as well as the Fleurieu Peninsula and Kangaroo Island. It is a narrow bioregion, averaging only 20 kilometres wide, and extends from Truro in the north, south to encompass the Fleurieu Peninsula and Kangaroo Island.
The Murray Darling Depression Bioregion occurs across the southwest corner of NSW and extends into Vic and SA. It is a shallow depression that filled with marine and terrestrial sediments over the last 50-60 million years. Most of the bioregion contains sandy soils that originally supported Mallee woodland and heathland vegetation. Native grassland occurs on grey cracking clays on the Wimmera Plains in Victoria and as isolated patches of Iron-grass Tussock Grassland in South Australia.
The NSW South Western Slopes Bioregion is an extensive area of foothills and isolated ranges comprising the lower inland slopes of the Great Dividing Range extending from north of Cowra through southern NSW into western Victoria
A huge plain that lies in the southern part of the Murray-Darling Basin. It was formed from sediment deposited by the Murray, Murrumbidgee, Lachlan and Goulburn Rivers which flow west through the Riverina bioregion from the Great Dividing Range. Landscapes are a mosaic of woodlands interspersed with grasslands, which occur on heavy less well drained red-brown and grey clay soils, and ephemeral or seasonal wetlands on depressions and drainage lines.
The reserve is characterised by treeless grassland plains punctuated by occasional strips of Black Box or Eumong (Acacia stenophylla) dominated woodland along ephemeral watercourses. The grasslands typically occur on ‘red’ and ‘grey’ soils.
Terrick Terrick NP conserves the largest, most intact examples of the Natural Grasslands of the Murray Valley Plains and is one of the few places in northern Victoria where the original landscapes and vegetation of the area are largley intact.
The South East Coastal Plain bioregion occurs entirely within Victoria and includes the Gippsland Plain, Otway Plain and Warnambool Plain sub-regions. The Gippsland Plain includes low lying coastal and alluvial plains, barrier dunes and swampy flats. Grassland and grassy woodland is associated with yellow and grey textured soils of the fertile flood plains. The Otway Plain in south west Victoria, includes coastal plains and dunes, foothills with river valleys and swamps in the lowlands. Grassland and grassy woodlands occur on floodplains on pale yellow and grey texture contrast soils.
The South Eastern Highlands Bioregion covers the dissected ranges and plateau of the Great Dividing Range that are topographically lower than the Australian Alps, which lie to the southwest. It extends to the Great Escarpment in the east and to the western slopes of the inland drainage basins. The bioregion continues into Victoria. Native grasslands are found on heavy textured soils in valleys, lower slopes and broader plains between 560 and 1200 metres in altitude and are extensive on the dry plains of the Moanro Tablelands.
Dunlop Grassland Nature Reserve, part of Canberra Nature Park, is a 105 hectare reserve located in north-west Belconnen on the ACT/NSW border. The reserve is gently sloping above the narrow flood plains of Gooramon Creek and is largely natural grassland. The reserve contains endangered natural temperate grassland and yellow box- Blakely’s red gum grassy woodland. It supports the endangered golden sun moth and is one of a few known habitats of the rare and locally endemic Canberra raspy cricket.
Jarramlee Offset Area, previously part of the Jerramlee property, is an area of 112 ha containing extensive areas of natural temperate grassland but also exotic pasture dominated by Chilean needlegrass. It provides extensive habitat for the endangered golden sun moth which feeds on both the roots of native wallaby grass and the Chilean needlegrass. The area will become part of Canberra Grassland Nature Reserve network.
A scenic and large reserve that conserves a large sample of the Monaro grassland landscape. There are patches of high floral diversity, especially in the steeper rocky parts of the reserve. The site conserves three of the regions threatened reptiles, and is habitat for a number of other grassland reptiles, birds, mammals and invertebrates.
Mulanggari Grassland Nature Reserve is a low lying grassland reserve located in the south west of Gungahlin Valley. The reserve features nationally endangered natural temperate grassland and includes populations of the threatened striped legless lizard, golden sun moth, and perunga grasshopper. Endangered Blakely’s red gum-yellow box grassy woodland occurs on ridge lines and in recent years trees have provided a roosting site for the vulnerable superb parrot. The reserve also protects an Aboriginal chert quarry complex which is valued by the Ngunnawal people and is significant for the information it provides on Aboriginal technology, occupation and resource use. Muggangarri is close to two other major and similar grassland reserves, Crace Grassland Nature Reserve (156 hectares) and Gungaderra Grassland Nature Reserve (281 hectare). Dominant species are Themeda australis, Chrysocephalum apiculatum, Panicum effusum, Poa sieberiana, Vittadinia sp., Lomandra sp., Austrostipa scabra, Austrostipa bigenticulata, Rytidosperma spp.
OCCGR is a large picturesque grassland reserve with extensive views over the township of Cooma, surrounding grasslands and distant forest landscapes. At the right time of day the golden landscapes of grasses provide spectacular image of what Australian montane and temperate grasslands would have looked like. The reserve is dominated by kangaroo and river tussock snow grasses, and contains many other species of grasses, wildflowers and sub-shrubs found in grasslands. The reserve adjoins other grassland sites which contain similar species.
This scenic site conserves populations of several threatened species. Wildflower displays are expected in spring and summer, particulalry patches of Button Wrinklewort, Hoary Sunray and Blue Devil. The patch of woodland in the north is the habitat for a variety of woodland birds, while the grassland section has several species of threatened fauna. A large mob of Eastern Grey Kangaroos makes the reserve its home.
This site has spectacular wildflower displays in spring and summer. It is an especially good site for Golden Moth Orchids, Blue Devil and the Chamomile Burr-daisy. Look for the pair of Nankeen Kestrels hunting or breeding in the big hollows of the old-growth Candlebark trees. In autumn and winter, the dominant Kangaroo Grass takes on lovely rusty hues. There are excellent opportunities for photography at the site as it is in a scenic area.
A majority of Jerrabomberra West Nature Reserve is generally flat, lowland native grassland with scattered box-gum woodland on gently rolling slopes in the south. The reserve is visible from the Monaro Highway and provides an example of the ‘treeless plains’ and woodland transition area that were typical of the Canberra region before European settlement. Jerrabomberra West (261 ha) and Jerrabomberra East (40 ha) are the two sites that form Jerrabomberra Grassland Nature Reserve; Woods Lane adjoins Jerrabomberra East Grassland Reserve.
The Southern Volcanic Plain lies primarliy in Victoria, hence it was previously known as the Victorian Volcanic Plain, but it also exends into South Australia around Mt Gambier. It was created by volcanic activity that began 4.5 million years ago and continued until 10 000 years ago. On average, an eruption took place every 10 000 years and over 400 eruption points have been identified. Although there were some explosive eruptions that produced circular craters (maars), which now contain lakes and swamps, most were small volcanoes, active for a few years or decades. These deposited thin broad shields or long lava flows of basalt 2–10 m deep, creating broad plains, but other flows up to 100 m thick filled existing valleys. Native grasslands occur in areas where these flows have experienced long periods of weathering, producing heavy grey, red or black cracking clay soils, which are generally fertile but poorly drained. In contrast, the youngest relatively unweathered lava flows are known as stony rises and have thin soils and support woodland vegetation.
Arcade Way Reserve is totally surrounded by the houses which is characteristic of the City View Estate which was designed by Walter Burley Griffin in the late 1920’s. Some of these parks have changed little over time and the native flora was preserved despite some disturbances, the planting of exotic trees and construction of playground equipment and paths.
Bordering the Merri Creek and now surrounded by industrial uses, the reserve supports large areas of Plains Grassland and patches of Red Gum Plains Grassy Woodland. Along the Merri Creek are stands of Woolly Tea-tree, Riparian Scrub and Escarpment Shrublands. Bababi Marning (Cooper Street) Grassland Nature Conservation Reserve is an important part of the larger Merri Creek Marran Baba Parklands which is a critical biodiversity corridor through Melbourne's northen suburbs from Mt Ridley all the way to Yarra Bend Park
The reserve sits on a rocky knoll above Kororoit Creek to which it remains substantially connected across College Street. It has been designed according to ecological principles and is surrounded by roads (so it can be burnt), has sympathetic fencing that exclude vechicles but not people, has granitic sand edges to minimise weed invasion and a walkway that invites visitors into it to experience the flora close up.
A triangular shaped reserve crossed by high voltage powerlines. Parts of the site have been significantly disturbed in the past by rock removal and dumping resulting in a grassland of varying quality that is being improved through sympathetic management.
While some trees were cleared from the Arboretum site in the past, several large River Red-gums remain and much of the native understorey is still present. A watercourse runs diagonally through the Arboretum from north-east to the south-west. The natural stream has been extensively modified and dammed as a series of ponds that form a major wetland. The main plantations of trees are to the west and north of the wetland. Apart from the western boundary, the ground layer between the mounds still retains a good cover of native plant species. Further east and north of the old saw mill is an area of Plains Grassy Woodland with some mature and juvenile River Red-gums over an understorey dominated by native grasses and forbs. Part of the woodland has been marked out with timber bollards.
This small, species rich grassland in the middle of Sunbury is highly significant and provides tremendous education potential. The site is open with a slight fall from north to south. The grassland is dominated by Themeda triandra (Kangaroo Grass) with most native species occuring at low frequencies across the reserve. Native grassland with different species composition occurs on the knoll and in a scape created when the adjoining railway line was built.
A flat grassland between Koroit Creek and residential houses immediately north of Isabella Williams Memorial Reserve that has been subject to various disturbances in the past. Prior to urbanisation in the 1990's there were many areas of native grassland nearby including on the opposite side of Koroit Creek in Burnside, along road and transmission reserves and the site of Brimbank Central Shopping centre
Mortlake Common Flora Reserve contains one of the largest remnants of the nationally listed critically endangered Natural Temperate Grassland of the Victorian Volcanic Plains. The reserve consists almost entirely of grassland, merging into a large (32 ha) seasonal wetland in the centre of the reserve. A shallow drain has been dug from the wetland, connecting it to Blind Creek, which enters the reserve on the eastern boundary and exits on the southern boundary. The reserve supports a high diversity of flora species in comparison to other large grassland remnants, including some large populations of threatened species, including the Western Gaping Leek Orchid, Basalt Leek-orchid, Plains Yam-daisy and Arching Flax-lily.
Ngarri-djarrang is surrounded by residential developments with Central Creek on its Western side. The grassland is bisected into a northern and southern section by Davidson Street, which has a wide mown grass edge on both sides and a footpath on the northern edge.
The Tasmanian Northern Midlands bioregion is mostly relatively low plains drained by tributaries of the Tamar River in the north and Jordan River in the south. The plains formed on sand, gravel and mud deposited by these rivers and the natural vegetation they supported was predominantly grasslands and grassy woodlands. On its eastern side the Northern Midlands bioregion rises into low, unglaciated hills and mountains formed from dolerite rock that are largely covered with dry sclerophyllous forests. On the western boundary lies the high Lake Country, which was extensively glaciated resulting in a large numbers of lakes carved into the very hard and erosion-resistant dolerite rock.
Campbell Town Golf Club is a nine-hole (par 70) flat course. There are bunkers on some greens and long, flat fairways. The rough is protected as it contains lowland native grassland dominated by Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra) with many rare varieties of orchids and at least 78 native species.
This very unprepossessing site, east of the town, and adjacent to the town’s garbage tip. It includes a salt lagoon with its own interesting flora and the hillside to the west of the lagoon boasts some rare and interesting species. This is a harsh grassland environment and a very interesting place to visit.
The Tasmanian South East bioregion encompasses much of coastal eastern Tasmania, the Midlands and the lower Derwent Valley. It has large areas of open slopes, plains and hills . Prominent features include a highly indented coastline, broad expanses of hilly country and mountain ranges capped with dolerite rock. . The vegetation of the bioregion is dominated by eucalypt woodlands, eucalypt open forests, tall open forests and native grasslands, some of which have been derived from grassy woodland communities by tree clearing.